Education is the process of learning or acquiring information, skills, values, morality, beliefs, and customs. Teaching, training, storytelling, discussion, and guided study are all educational techniques. Education often occurs under the direction of teachers, but students can also learn. Education may be done in formal or informal environments, and the way people think, feel, or perform can be deemed educational if people experience it formatively. Pedagogy is called the methodology of instruction.
Education originated in prehistoric times when young people were training them in the information and talents which their community considered necessary. According to Jackson, “education has attracted the attention of philosophers and sociologists, economists and politicians over thousands of years” (Jackson, 2017). It was done verbally and through imitation in pre-literate civilizations. Storytelling is transmitted from one generation to the following information, values, and abilities. As societies started to broaden their knowledge to capacities easily taught by imitation, they established formal education. According to Ary, “The ancient Greek philosophers made perhaps the first significant contribution to the systematic approach for gaining knowledge” (Ary et al., 2018, p. 2). During the period of the Middle Kingdom, there were schools in Egypt.
Organized education is usually formally split into kindergartens, primary schools, high schools, universities, and apprenticeships. There are moves to improve educational quality and efficiency towards a student’s life relevant and to solve problems effectively in the present or future society as a whole, or to provide evidence-based education approaches. Education reforms are needed. Some nations and the United Nations have acknowledged the right to education. Global efforts are aimed at attaining the Sustainable Development Goal, which supports excellent education for everyone. Education is required till a particular age in most places.
In the first place, the COVID-19 epidemic is a health problem. Many countries have opted to shut their schools, universities, and institutions. The crisis crystallizes the decision between shutting and keeping the schools open. Many families throughout the globe have experienced severe short-term disruption: homeschooling is a massive shock to parents’ productivity and children’s social life and learning. Education is moving online on an unproven level. Student evaluation also moves online, and everyone is faced with a lot of trial and error; however, many evaluations were just canceled.
In addition to interrupting students’ teachings throughout the world, the shutdown of schools, colleges, and universities is also coincident with a critical assessment time frame, and many examinations have been delayed or canceled. Internal evaluations are likely considered less significant, and many have been canceled. However, they want to educate families and teachers about the growth of the child. The delay in recognizing both high potential and learning problems is caused by the decline in information and can affect children in the long run. Importantly, these disruptions are not only a short-term concern but also can have a long-term impact on the cohorts impacted and may exacerbate inequality.
Today, despite a worldwide upheaval, several significant breakthroughs have resulted in digital educational solutions, including the wide-ranging shift to online schooling, an increase in applications, and hybrid learning. Teaching will probably continue soon to employ digital technologies. According to Selwyn, “Digital technology is now an integral part of education. The past forty years have seen exponential increases in computer processing power accompanied by major technological developments such as the Internet and mobile telephony” (Selwyn, 2018, p. 1). New problems and innovations are emerging here. Nearly every aspect of society, particularly the education sector, was impacted by technology. In modern times, instead of spending time in class, the students choose to increase their abilities and knowledge by being internet-connected at home. It alters the way students and instructors interact. Today, several trends related to education are being considered, but a more detailed analysis should be done.
How to encourage pupils effectively is one of the significant difficulties that instructors confront. When a kid learns how pleasant it is to learn mathematics, reading, or science, instructors frequently assist him in building a life-long learning pleasure. However, it might be challenging to attract pupils to a new subject until that time. Enter a gamification approach, which employs activities and prizes to encourage the involvement of students. This technique can help students become engaged and motivated learners when utilized to promote a love of learning. However, in conjunction with non-educating benefits such as pizza parties or treatments, gamification might make kids lose sight of the school’s aim: to assist them in learning.
Gamification is an educational topic with a lot of proponents and opponents. According to Qian and Clark, “Game-based learning and 21st-century skills have been gaining an enormous amount of attention from researchers and practitioners” (Qian & Clark, 2016, p. 1). The use of activity and external rewards to increase motivation in non-gaming situations are characterized here as gamification. It is meant to enhance the experience and commitment of a person to a program, goal, or system. According to All, “In recent years, research into the effectiveness of digital game-based learning (DGBL) has increased” (All et al., 2016). Gamification explores its beginnings and what drives individuals to learn in educational psychology. It might be challenging to find determination and endurance for a challenging endeavor. Gamification pushes individuals to enjoy the process. As a person participates in a course or project more closely, they improve their favorable sentiments about the experience and are more inclined to involve themselves.
Game-based education involves a feedback mechanism for pupils who help develop a passion for learning from the very beginning. By teaching new ideas with the aid of activities, teachers may help children go from learning to learning only for their own sake. At times, a first game is a key to the inner interest of a youngster with a topic. One of the most significant gamification advantages is that it motivates students to become active learners. Increasing a student’s focus on the task and promoting involvement are more practical to assist students in maintaining their information. With time, this will make studying an incentive for pupils rather than just being attracted by games.
When poorly handled, gamification may inspire and disintéress pupils in the classroom – just the opposite of the result they would like. In order to prevent this, the distinction between inner and outside motivation has to be understood. Internal motivation arises when pupils desire to know a new topic and find new talent for their benefit. On the other side, external motivation appears when pupils get external awards or penalties. Gamification has more significant beneficial impacts when teachers consider intrinsic motivation while planning learning activities. A teacher can assist prevent pupils from being driven by inherent incentives. Teachers might try conceptualizing prizes instead of class pizza parties, which helps pupils build enthusiasm for academic subjects. In this approach, the enjoyable element of gameplay learning is associated with reading, math, or other abilities.
Problem-based learning (PBL) is a learning technique in which challenging real-world issues are utilized as the vehicle to encourage students to acquire concepts and principles rather than provide facts and ideas directly. Problematic learning involves using the sort of intelligence necessary to face actual difficulties in the world: the capacity to deal with newness and complexity (Tan, 2021, p. 2). According to Altbach, “the implications of globalization have been profound in higher education as well as in the broader economy and society” (Altbach, 2016). PBL may support critical analysis talents, problem-solving capabilities, and social skills alongside course material. It can also give group work, research, and life-long education materials chances to be identified and evaluated.
In any learning setting, problem-based learning may be included. The technique is utilized throughout the semester as the primary mode of education in the strictest meaning of PBL. However, broader definitions and uses span PBL in laboratory and design classrooms to start a single debate. In addition, problem-based learning may be utilized to construct evaluation items. The real-world problem is the primary thread connecting these different uses.
With a bit of ingenuity, any subject may be converted to PBL. Although the fundamental challenges differ between disciplines, several properties transcend areas of good PBL problems. The challenge must encourage pupils to get an insight into topics. It should force students to develop and defend reasoned conclusions. In order to link them to prior knowledge, the problem should integrate the aims of the content. If the issue has been utilized in a group project, it has to be difficult to resolve it by the students. When used for a multi-phase project, it should open up the beginning stages of the problem and engage pupils in this issue.
There are several sources of issues: magazines, books, textbooks, and movies. These might also lead to problems. Some of these modules may be used with minor modification, but others must be rebuilt to be of value. Students should select a core idea, concept, or principle regularly taught during a specific course, then think of a typical end-of-chapter issue, task or homework that the students usually have to learn. List the educational outcomes students should achieve in dealing with the challenge.
For the subject under discussion, students should think about the actual world setting. Develop a component of the tale-telling to an end of chapter problem or seek an existing instance that can be applied. More intricate difficulties push pupils to move beyond essential plug-and-chug solutions. See periodicals, journals, and articles for storytelling thoughts. Some PBL practitioners speak to experts in the area looking for practical use of the teaching idea. The problem must be addressed in phases in order for pupils to discover difficulties of learning that will drive them to investigate the specific ideas.
Finally, the essential resources for pupils are identified. Students must learn to find and use the learning materials alone, although it might be helpful if the trainer tells them some good sources for starting them. Many students prefer to restrict their study to the Internet, and it is vital that they also get guided into the library. Three closely associated teaching approaches are case studies, role-plays, and simulations. The distribution of the PBL problem is a methodology. Case studies are submitted in writing to students. Roleplays include pupils improvising situations based on the description of the supplied character. Simulations today typically use programs based on computers. Whatever methodology is employed, the core of the process stays the same: the problem of the actual world.
Education is the process of learning or acquiring information, skills, values, morality, beliefs, and customs. Teaching, training, storytelling, discussion, and guided study are all educational techniques. Education often occurs under the direction of teachers, but students can also learn. Education originated in prehistoric times when young people were training them in the information and talents which their community considered necessary. Gamification is an educational topic with a lot of proponents and opponents. Gamification explores its beginnings and what drives individuals to learn in educational psychology. It might be challenging to find determination and endurance for a challenging endeavor. Gamification pushes individuals to enjoy the process. Game-based education involves a feedback mechanism for pupils who help develop a passion for learning from the very beginning. By teaching new ideas with the aid of activities, teachers may help children go from learning to learning only for their own sake.
Problem-based learning (PBL) is a learning technique in which challenging real-world issues are utilized as the vehicle to encourage students to acquire concepts and principles rather than provide facts and ideas directly. With a bit of ingenuity, any subject may be converted to PBL. Although the fundamental challenges differ between disciplines, several properties transcend areas of good PBL problems. PBL may support critical analysis talents, problem-solving capabilities, and social skills alongside course material. These trends show the current mood and vector of education around the world.
All, A., Castellar, E. P. N., & Van Looy, J. (2016). Assessing the effectiveness of digital game-based learning: Best practices. Computers & Education, 92, 90-103.
Altbach, P. G. (2016). Global perspectives on higher education. JHU Press.
Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C., Irvine, C. K. S., & Walker, D. (2018). Introduction to research in education. Cengage Learning.
Jackson, K. (2017). Education. The Wiley‐Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social Theory, 1-5.
Selwyn, N. (2016). Is technology good for education?. John Wiley & Sons.
Tan, O. S. (2021). Problem-based learning innovation: Using problems to power learning in the 21st century. Gale Cengage Learning.
Qian, M., & Clark, K. R. (2016). Game-based learning and 21st-century skills: A review of recent research. Computers in human behavior, 63, 50-58.