Health professionals need to display an improved comprehension of the pathophysiological systems of illnesses, clinical symptoms, and treatment plans and how they impact clients during their lives. Firstly, it is worth noting that clinical manifestations are classified into two groups and are objective and subjective. The doctor determines the former, whereas the sick person ascertains the latter. The goal and purpose of this paper are to objectively examine the possible diagnosis and treatments for Mr. C. who is an obese patient with diabetes.
In Mr. C’s particular instance, the objective interpretation of his obese status is a high weight relative to his height. It means that his Body Mass Index (BMI) goes far beyond average limits; the healthy range of BMI is 18.5–24.9kg/M2 (Zhu et al., 2017). Nevertheless, Mr. C seems to have a BMI of 45.1 kg/M2, which would be medically regarded as obese. Furthermore, other manifestations include high blood levels, high-affinity blood sugar, increased serum creatinine levels, elevated Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) levels, and increased overall cholesterol (Ahmad & Testani, 2017). Also, the patient is below the normal level of excellent cholesterol (HDL) at 30 mg/dL but is predicted to have even more than 40 mg/dL of HDL.
These objective occurrences potentially expose Mr. C to a wide range of medical conditions. Subjective manifestations portrayed by Mr. C that led him to seek medical assistance are because he experienced breathing problems during physical exercise and sleep apnea. He also keeps complaining about the inflammation of the feet around his ankles. Mr. C opines that his overweight situation has always been an issue he has been suffering from since his early life.
Obesity Health Threats for Mr. C. and Possibility of Bariatric Surgery
Based on Mr. C’s high amounts of bad cholesterol and lower rates of healthy cholesterol, he is at risk of experiencing cardiovascular disorders such as atherosclerosis. The condition involves collecting fatty deposits in prominent blood vessels’ interior walls, limiting the amount of blood delivered to vital organs. The common signs of the disease are difficulty breathing during exercise and chest pain (angina). High blood glucose in the individual places him at a threat of having type two diabetes, one of which could be itchy skin or pruritus. The elevated rates of serum creatinine in the blood can be a symptom of kidney failure since this waste is not filtered (Zhu et al., 2017). Other possible complications dependent on Mr. C’s status are but are not confined to cancer, arthritis, or organ failure.
Bariatric surgery is usually applied in patients where BMI is more than 40 or whose healthy eating and workout do not help with weight loss. It also causes health-threatening conditions (le Roux & Heneghan, 2018). Mr. C is a fit subject for operation since his BMI is more than 40 and has concealed dietary adjustments in the intake of vegetables, and a low sodium food does not appear to minimize his weight.
Functional Health Trends
- Health perception: Mr. C recognizes that his problem with losing weight has so far been consistent throughout childhood, and that is why he chooses to have a regular health check. Nutritional: To lower his blood pressure, Mr. C maintains low sodium nutrition, and vegetables often make a more significant proportion of his eating plan. Activity-exercise: While Mr. C has been suffering from weight loss since infancy, his failure to regular physical activity has exacerbated the condition. Self-perception/self-concept: Mr. C assumes that his obesity problem is a lifelong concern, and nothing can be done to improve it. Thus, this assumption may have led to his extreme obese disorder. Cognitive-perceptual: Mr. C’s mental state may be perceived to be average, considering the nature of his position as a telephone inventory manager, which demands intense focus.
Stage of End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) and its Prevention
End-stage renal disease (ESRD) develops in five phases; in phase 1, the kidney is weakened but still functioning. The approximate glomerulus filtration rate (eGFR) of the renal is above 90 ml/min. Phase two is dominated by moderate renal dysfunction, and EGFR would be between 89–60 ml/min. Mainly in the third level, the kidney has mild to extreme functional impairment, and the eGFR is 44–30 ml/min. Stage 4 is marked by severe renal function impairment, and eGFR is 29–15 ml/min. The organ has lost its functionality in the final stage, and the only treatments are dialysis or kidney transplantation.
Moreover, the eGFR at this stage would be less than 15 ml/min (Ahmad & Testani, 2017). High blood pressure and low blood glucose regulation are the main contributors to ESRD (Zhu et al., 2017). Thus, the above are some of the significant signs that Mr. C. has shown. To avoid further weakening the renal system, the client must consider a complete change of lifestyle, which requires continuous doctor’s visits and physical activity followed by a highly nutritious sodium-low diet. These adjustments regulate blood pressure and blood glucose.
Resources for ESRD Non-Acute Care Clients and Interdisciplinary Treatment
Patients enduring non-acute kidney problems may be offered proper personalized treatment through a well-coordinated multidisciplinary process. In this procedure, the client is considered as part of the decision-making mechanism. Some interdisciplinary health professionals are nutritionists who will advise the patient about what to consume, a nephrologists who will evaluate and prescribe the proper care. Other practitioners are not explicitly linked to care social workers who can guarantee the patient’s living area and the job is aligned with the client’s new way of life (Zhu et al., 2017). Thus, this will allow the sick person to adjust quickly to the workplace environment once they start working after or during treatment.
In summary, this has been a case of Mr. C, a patient seeking information regarding his obesity condition. At the medical center, the healthcare providers first examined him and took and recorded his vital signs to ascertain the subsequent cause of action. The next step was to address and monitor health complications that are associated with obesity. It was clear that the patient was at risk of undergoing bariatric surgery as the last resort.
The client acknowledged that his excessive weight has been a consistent problem. This resulted in physicians recommending some functional health trends that might assist in minimizing some of the effects, for instance, physical activities and exercises. As a part of his clinical examination, a detailed explanation was given regarding the possible prevention of End-Stage-Renal-Disease (ESRD), a condition which Mr. C. is suffering from. Finally, the client was made aware of available resources for patients enduring non-acute kidney problems, for instance, proper personalized treatment through a well-coordinated multidisciplinary process.
Ahmad, T., & Testani, J. (2017). Physical activity prevents obesity and heart failure. JACC: Heart Failure, 5(5), 385-387.
le Roux, C. W., & Heneghan, H. M. (2018). Bariatric surgery for obesity. Medical Clinics of North America, 102(1), 165-182.
Zhu, F., Zhang, X., Ding, X., & Han, B. (2017). Protective effect of regular physical activity on major depressive episodes in patients with early stages of chronic kidney disease. Renal Failure, 39(1), 602-606.