Schizophrenia is a mental illness characterized by the disintegration of thought processes and changes in the emotional sphere. The disease affects all spheres of life, and, as a rule, the patient differs significantly from others. Usually, the main reason is a difficult family situation or similar psychological factors, but the disease also has a biochemical concept (McCutcheon et al., 2020). Impaired brain metabolism can provoke the production of substances that contribute to hallucinations.
When studying this disease, it should be noted that pathological processes affect thinking, perception, volitional sphere, and emotions. There are three forms of schizophrenia: simple, catatonic, and hebephrenic. The simple form is characterized by disturbances in the emotional-volitional sphere and thinking functions. There is a discontinuity of thoughts, a scarcity of emotions, and a lack of will to various actions.
The catatonic form almost always has a paroxysmal course, accompanied by an increase in the patient’s muscle tone and speech dysfunction. Severe emotional disorders manifest the hebephrenic form, and the onset usually occurs in adolescence and is characterized by a paroxysmal course (Müller, 2018). The patient has pronounced inappropriate behavior with pretentious gestures and grimaces, and in speech, there is broken thinking lack of logic and delusional ideas.
All symptoms of schizophrenia can be divided into two groups: positive and negative. The presence of predominantly auditory hallucinations characterizes positive signs. The emotional sphere in positive symptoms is characterized by low (depressive) or elevated (manic) moods. Negative symptoms manifest themselves in the form of autism – a sense of isolation and a desire to leave places of general congestion of people and a lack of strong-willed qualities.
Treatment of schizophrenia is carried out under the strict guidance of a psychiatrist. Much attention is paid to correcting the patient’s psychological state: work with a psychologist, conversations about the current state, and what the patient associates with the occurrence of the disease (Green et al., 2019) As a medical treatment, preference is given to neuroleptics: they effectively relieve psychotic attacks and slow down the progression of the disease. Also, sedatives and vitamin complexes are prescribed to improve the general condition of the body and calm down. The duration of treatment depends on the form of schizophrenia and prognosis: relief of symptoms can take up to two months, and stabilization of the condition can last up to six months.
Green, M. F., Horan, W. P., & Lee, J. (2019). Nonsocial and social cognition in schizophrenia: current evidence and future directions. World Psychiatry, 18(2), 146-161.
McCutcheon, R. A., Marques, T. R., & Howes, O. D. (2020). Schizophrenia—an overview. JAMA psychiatry, 77(2), 201-210.
Müller, N. (2018). Inflammation in schizophrenia: pathogenetic aspects and therapeutic considerations. Schizophrenia bulletin, 44(5), 973-982. Web.