The PICOT question is: does nursing intervention programs influence the decrease of nurses over a year when compared to no intervention within the same period? Steege and Rainbow (2017) examine how different factors, including turnover and decrease of the number of nurses, affect the professional’s perceptions of their work. From the interviews with nurses, the authors concluded that fatigue is the main factor that impacts dissatisfaction with work and high turnover. Hence, Steege and Rainbow (2017) concluded that organizations should pay attention to nurses’ fatigue to mitigate the adverse effects it on their work. The problem Steege and Rainbow (2017) investigated was the nurse’s perception of the factors that impact their work, satisfaction, and turnover. The significance of these findings is their contribution to creating an adequate work culture for the nursing personnel. The purpose was to determine the factors that affect nurses negatively, and the objective was to help healthcare organizations increase the retention of nurses and their satisfaction with work. The research question is the exploration of barriers and facilitators that contribute to nurses’ fatigue.
Kurnt-Thoma et al. (2017) focus on exploring the nurses turnover by implementing their customer ten element onboarding program, which should affect the decrease in the number of nurses. The problem that the researchers try to address is that some organizations face high nursing turnover rates, while many nurses choose to leave this occupation. The significance of this study is the contribution to improving the nurses’ preparedness to face challenges, which should help stop the decrease in the number of nursing professionals. The purpose is to test the program; these researchers developed in a real-life healthcare setting. The objective is to survey the participants and analyze hospital turnover data to determine if the onboarding program is successful. Hence, the research question is the evaluation of effectiveness and nurses’ perceptions of the onboarding program and its effect on turnover.
The PICOT question mentioned above is about the decrease of the nursing staff, and Steege and Rainbow (2017) identify a decrease of nurses and high turnover rates as one of the primary barriers that obstruct nurses from performing their duties well. Kurnt-Thoma et al.’s (2017) study is directly linked to the PICOT question because it explores the potential way of addressing the decreasing number of nurses.
In the study by Steege and Rainbow (2019), there is only the intervention group, which has the primary characteristic the same as the group from the PICOT question. All the individuals are nurses; they have worked in a care facility and can provide insight into their experience. Likewise, the intervention group in the study by Kurnt-Thoma et al. (2017) consists of nurses both for comparison and intervention.
Steege and Rainbow (2017) employ the qualitative exploratory design and use semi-structured interviews to answer their research question. This means that the researchers have outlined some of the questions they want to ask the participants, but the interviewers are encouraged to ask follow-up questions as they proceed with data collection to gather more information. Kurnt-Thoma et al. (2017) use semi-structured surveys, which allow collecting insights from participants but do not imply face-to-face contact with researchers. Hence, in comparison to interviews, semi-structured surveys allow gathering more data. However, it can be less insightful because the interviewees are unable to ask follow-up questions.
The benefit of the study by Steege and Rainbow (2017) is that qualitative design allows to explore a phenomenon in detail and identify different factors that may have an impact on it. Hence, the authors did not have to hypothesize which factors are barriers or facilitators for nurses’ because their approach allowed them to get this information first hand, which is the main benefit of this method. The limitation of the interview approach is that only a limited number of participants can be included due to the time and resources required to hold these sessions and analyze the qualitative data. The benefit of the survey method is that researchers can include more participants, but the limitation is the insightfulness and ability to gain more insight.
Steege and Rainbow (2017) found that the primary barriers for nurses are high turnover and work dissatisfaction. Kurnt-Thoma et al. (2017) found that a standardized onboarding program allows decreasing the turnover rates. Moreover, the nurses participating in it had better communication skills and were more engaged in discussions about the issues they face with the management. Hence, the findings of both studies address the factors that result in the decrease in the number of nurses. The implication of the two articles is that policymakers should pay more attention to the work environment of nurses to create an appropriate culture and environment where nurses are not fatigued.
The first ethical consideration is disclosing the personal information of the participants. Traditionally, most studies do not imply the need to include the names or contact information of the subjects. This could adversely affect the results since, for example, nurses would be afraid to share their thoughts on the negative aspects of work in fear that their management would punish them for these comments. The second factor is the disclosure o the purpose of the study, especially in cases when it may affect the outcomes. The ethical approach is to ensure that the subjects understand the procedure and can agree to perform certain actions, even if the researcher cannot fully disclose the purpose of the study. However, all potential consequences, including harm, injuries, or other related factors about the study, must be discussed to ensure that the participants’ consent to be a part of the research willingly and while being properly informed.
Steege and Rainbow (2017) did not disclose personal information of their subjects, and they only included an assessment of general characteristics, such as gender, education, or work experience. Additionally, in both studies, the researchers informed the participants about the general characteristics of their experiment. Overall, this paper analyzes two research studies connected to the PICOT question.
Kurnat-Thoma, E., Ganger, M., Peterson, K., & Channell, L. (2017). Reducing annual hospital and registered nurse staff turnover—A 10-element onboarding program intervention. SAGE Open Nursing. Web.
Steege, L., & Rainbow, J. (2017). Fatigue in hospital nurses — ‘Supernurse’ culture is a barrier to addressing problems: A qualitative interview study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 67, 20-28. Web.