Global warming refers to rise in the normal temperature of the earth’s surface. During the last century, the surface temperature drastically increased. According to an intergovernmental board on climate variation, these changes have resulted from human activities. Human activities such as deforestation and harvesting of fossil fuels have caused an increase in the concentration of the green house gases in the atmosphere. They have lead to an increase in the amount of various greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, methane, nitrous oxide and ozone in the lower face of the environment.
Various human activities contributing to global warming
Even though there are various natural forces that contribute to the rise in global warming, human activities have been perceived as the most contributing factor. Human activities increase the amount of green house gas released into the atmosphere. Whenever human uses fossil fuel, carbon dioxide gas is emitted to the atmosphere. Because currently man is greatly using fossil fuel as his main source of energy, the gas is greatly being emitted to the air. Other causes of global warming from human activities include methane gas released during farming as well as nitrogen oxides. Increased use of fossil fuel has lead to the increase in the amount of carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide also occurs whenever human being burn stuffs such as coal, car combustion and airplane ignition. This underlines the need for human being to ensure that they have abridged the rate at which they use those products that release the gas to the atmosphere. However, most of the human activities have been seen to drastically frustrate the efforts of reducing green house gas prevalence in the atmosphere. One of the major activities that are frustrating these efforts is deforestation. As human being converts most of the areas initially covered with forests and grass into farmlands and towns, a lot of carbon dioxide is being released into the environment. All living things have carbon as one of their constituents. As the fallen trees and grass die and decompose thy release carbon dioxide gas back to the environment. If these activities are not stopped with immediate effect, it would be hard to contain the situation in future. By these human activities continuously heating the earth, it will reach a point where the normal carbon swallow holes will fail to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide. Carbon swallow holes are natural systems that are capable of holding carbon for many years leading to reduction of the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (A cooler climate.com Par. 2&3).
As human being continues cutting trees along the shoreline for use in paper and timber production, there is increase in soil erosion along the shore. This leads to the rise in the quantity of water surface area. Water becomes muddy leading to an increase in the amount of impurities that improves light assimilation into the water. This light absorption leads to rise of the water temperature. As water gets heated, it results to the melting of snow in the polar caps as witnessed in the Ward Hunt Ice shelf. As the ice melts, the amount of sunlight that is sent back decreases leading to increase in global warming.
The release of carbon dioxide gas into the atmosphere has also lead to oceans being unable to store carbon. Oceans stores most of the earths carbon though the help of the aquatic vegetation. According to scientists, increased thermal layering of the ocean has resulted to a great reduction in levels of plankton constituent plants which harbors carbon dioxide. This has lead to most of the carbon dioxide being released to the atmosphere. Mode of farming such as development of paddies has also resulted to the release of methane gas to the atmosphere. Methane gas is twenty times more adversarial than carbon dioxide. Considering its effect for a period of ten years, it has been declared to be a hundred times more harmful than carbon dioxide. The amount of methane gas in the atmosphere has been found to be around 1.8ppm. Due to its adverse effects, this amount poses a great risk to global warming in future. Methane gas is also produced through the human practices of keeping huge ranches of sheep and cattle. It is also released during coal harvesting and oil boring. Incidences of leakages from gas pipes have also lead to an increase in the amount of methane gas in the environment. A study has reported that human activities have contributed to the increase in the amount of methane gas in the environment by approximately 145% of what could be contributed by natural factors.
Various agricultural and industrial activities also have contributed to increase in the amount of Nitrous oxide gas in the atmosphere. Use of chlorofluorocarbons in refrigerators and air conditioners causes exhaustion of the ozone layer. As it is produced, some of it is released to the atmosphere. Industrial activities have resulted to the development of a gas layer at the lower part of the atmosphere. This layer is called ozone in the troposphere. It comes about as a result of atmospheric reactions consisting of gases emitted during human activities. Human actions like alteration of land use and burning of fossil fuel have lead to growth of particles in the atmosphere. These particles alter the amount of heat that is consumed or bounced back by the atmosphere. They also affect the various characteristics of clouds that make them absorb some heat leading to increased global warming. Some of the farming techniques have allowed farmers to use various machines as well as chemical fertilizers in improving their farming. One of the fertilizers that are widely used is the nitrogen fertilizer. The fertilizer increases the amount of nitrogen on the earth surface leading to an increase in crop yield. However, it is leading to the emitting of Nitrogen oxide into the environment that is capable of ensnaring heat three hundred times more than carbon dioxide can. According to United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, modern farming is leading to an increase in global warming more than transportation industry does (A cooler climate.com Par. 4-6).
Effects of global warming
Some of the greenhouse gases emitted into the environment are capable of remaining in the atmosphere for a period of more than one hundred years. This implies that global warming, unless addressed, will have adverse effects on earth in future. Some of the effects include disease spread, catastrophes such as hurricanes and droughts as well as other economic damages. As the earth gets warm varied disease causing insects migrate from one region to another spreading disease to these regions. This has been taken as one of the reason why most countries have not succeeded in annihilating malaria. Many countries have spent billions in trying to revive their economy after effects of global warming. Extreme weather conditions resulting from global warming have caused damage to property in many countries. Rainfall patterns have drastically changed leading to many people experiencing unexpected floods while others are rocked by drought. Hurricanes resulting from global warming has left a lot of property damaged accompanied by deaths. These countries have also spent a lot of money trying to fight diseases caused by various insects as a result of global warming (Mastrandrea and Stephen Par. 4-8).
Other effects of global warming have been experienced in the ocean life. Increased warming of ocean water has adversely affected various ocean habitats such as coral reefs. An increase in water temperature has lead to coral bleaching. Bleaching leads to corals losing algae that make them maintain their color and sustenance. Continued increase in the amount of water temperature leads to these reefs dying. It has also resulted to most animals and plants switching their habitats. Many species have not been able to thrive in areas they initially thrived in.
Human beings need to look for alternative ways of carrying out their activities to reduce the dangers caused by global warming. Alternative sources of energy that do not emit carbon dioxide needs to be adopted. Some of these sources include underground steams, nuclear power and wind. Solar cell can also be used as an alternative to coal in producing heat energy. Since green plants consume most of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, there is need for human to reduce activities that leads to deforestation. Crops use carbon dioxide and hydrogen in processing their food. The amount of carbon dioxide released by decaying organisms will be absorbed by these plants balancing the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Subsequently the amount of global warming will be drastically reduced.
A cooler climate.com. “Causes of Global Warming: What are the Major Ones?” 2009. Web.
Mastrandrea, Michael D., and Stephen H. Schneider. “Global warming.” World Book Online Reference Center. World Book, Inc. 2005. Web.