Free Trade and Regulated Trade in the UAE

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Page count 19
Word count 5329
Read time 19 min
Subject Economics
Type Essay
Language 🇺🇸 US


In every part of the world, businesses face an uphill task to conform to the laid down environmentally friendly practices and regulations. The increased economic activities in the United Arab Emirates result in the production of more energy to meet the demands of a growing economy. Trade and massive production is responsible for environmental degradation experienced in Dubai continue to fuel fears that if things continue this way, the environment may not be able to sustain the demands of production due to pollution. The need for a sustainable approach may include a restricted economy to guarantee safer environments. With increased production, human activity continues to have a toll on the environment. In Dubai, several businesses will have a duty to engage in environmentally friendly initiatives aimed at improving the quality of their environmental performance. Organizational environmental awareness will help businesses to be mindful of the environment thus assisting them in nurturing environmentally friendly practices while developing the economy.


Since WWII and the end of the Atlantic World, most countries took an interest in economic and political activities that would improve the lives of the citizens. While the US initiated the Marshal project, the United Arab Emirates decided to bring resources together to bar the overly aggressive Britons from taking over their resources. The Gulf was an important region for the UAE countries because it offered an excellent seaport and transition for goods from countries with which the countries trade. The oil and gas-rich region couldn’t avoid the international environment that constantly seeks the two resources. However, the free trade UAE region also has areas with closed up economies. Both free trade and restricted trading activities have merits and demerits to the populations in the UAE. Dubai is a business nucleus for the rest of the world and an excellent tourist destination for people that seek to explore its beautiful islands. Therefore, Dubai cannot afford to have a restricted trading environment even though socio-cultural factors such as dress code, religion, and traditional ideologies of governance constantly interfere with free trade. Free trade is common among many countries.


Rapidly developing countries are facing comparable problems in terms of unrestricted local pollution. However, it is believed that the developed countries either have encountered the same problems in the past or are still affected in one way or the other. Consequently, an exchange of knowledge and expertise should be fast-tracked for the benefit of humanity. Much of the research on pollution, in general, has been carried out quite a while ago in various Dubai, and much of the information obtained in these studies may not necessarily be for consumption by modern scientists and others concerned with this type of problem in the developed countries. Adequate expertise and experience gained elsewhere in the past should be made accessible to Dubai, which has since been faced with analogous problems.

Dubai should benefit from the transfer of knowledge obtained from research programs and the development of abatement policies in countries, which have been previously exposed to these problems. Again, the exchange of ideas amongst the developing nations, regarding the assessment of air pollution coupled with the implementation of emission legislation is equally useful in deriving the optimal abatement strategies needed in Dubai. Among the threats posed by the continued environmental destruction in the United Arab Emirates includes the insufficiency of policy frameworks capable of sustaining development to guarantee natural resource protection. Already, Dubai authorities are currently taking measures that will more effectively enforce the regions’ encroachment reduction policy by shutting down companies that do not conform to the stipulations of the environmental regulatory authority. Despite these efforts, however, the concerns of environmental policy remain an elusive subject in Dubai.

Literature review

In the 21st century, chances are that people can easily carry out import and export activities across airwaves, seaports, and road networks. Countries such as the US and China are in distant places, but the famous WWI railroad still connects them enabling easy exchange of products and services. The essence of free trade is to enable countries to share resources based on the foreign policies that govern business activities within the regions. Trade barriers mostly exist because countries have to be in control of their territories. They have to ensure that illegal businesses do not take place to disrupt normalcy. In free trade or commonly referred to as capitalism, the trade barriers either do not exist or are few depending on the agreements made between the involved countries. Free trade cannot apply to all industries considering the changing consumption patterns and the fact that depletion of the ozone layer continually promotes global warming. Countries such as the UAE remain cautious about countries whose industries pollute the environment without abiding by the policies of the Kyoto protocol. When it comes to tourism, Dubai has removed most trade barriers because the area is the economic backbone of the country. When Dubai began designing and erecting the world’s tallest skyscraper, Burj Khalifa, the rest of the world paid attention to the country that was in the middle of a real estate bubble (Anjaria, Kirmani, & Petersen 1985, p. 80). Were it not for the free trade policies of the country, then the real estate business in Dubai would collapse completely. However, its trading activities with the West, Africa, East Asia, and Central Asia place it in a competitive environment within the United Arab Emirates.

Many reasons exist to explain why countries belong to the World Trade Organisation (WTO) among other regional trading unions. The main reason is that countries have free trade policies that adhere to fair trade principles globally. Some countries even within the UAE feel that such policies will erode their socio-political beliefs, and the best thing to do is to close up their economies to the rest of the world. Typical, most East Asian countries in the aspects including China has allowed religion to control most activities including education and trading activities with other parts of the world. Most closed up economies apply restrictive policies to avoid control from external forces. For instance, the WTO and the Human Rights Watch play a significant role in protecting employees in different countries. They ensure that the work environment is safe for expatriates and even the citizens of the target country. While Dubai might accept such levels of intervention to restricted markets within the UAE, such refers to interference with their sovereignty. Countries mostly targeted with interference allegations include the US and the UK because of the business networks they build globally. Also, they take control of several communication and cyberspaces globally for being manufacturers of some of the high-tech computers and electronics in the world (Molenaar 2007, p. 163). For purposes of politics, then, restricted trade policies serve the interests of certain countries. On the other hand, economic growth and sustenance drives countries within the UAE to seek business partnerships in other continents particularly Asia and Europe.


Considering the onus on the cumulative global warming trends, the future of the economy is bleak (Leroux 2005, p. 25). With the increasing air temperatures, rising sea levels, melting glaciers, receding ice caps, and cases of extreme weather patterns across the world, it is prudent to take a close and objective look at how climatic changes affects the environmental resources in the UAE (Radhi 2009, p. 97). In Dubai, institutions, individuals, and the government continue to develop theses to explain these changes with scientifically proven analysis of the situation directing these consequences to the state of changing climatic conditions and their impacts on the economy. Increased quantities of greenhouse gas-emission, deforestation, and unsustainable land-use patterns take credit for changing global climatic conditions in Dubai. In Dubai, many anti-environmentalism crusaders believe in the existence of a scientific gap in explaining the claims about climatic changes and global warming.

Rising sea and ocean levels

In much of the twentieth century, the sea-level rise rate stood at 1.7mm per year. However, as human activity continues to have a toll on the environments, statistics showed an upsurge rate at 3.2mm per annum (Radhi 2009, p. 98). Within the city of Dubai, these observations represent a show in changing climatic structures with direct negative impacts on the environmental resources. Thermal expansion of water and additional water flows into the oceans and seas remain the major causes of increasing rising sea levels. Therefore, it is important to note that these two drivers occur due to an increase in temperature resulting from industrial activities. According to Leroux (2005, p. 75), as global temperature rises, the ocean water heats up making it expand, similarly, rising temperatures heat glaciers and ice caps that occupy the land. This results in the flowing of glaciers into seawater, leading to increased volumes of ocean water.

Melting glaciers and ice caps

Since the onset of the industrial revolution, many countries including Dubai continue to use fossil fuels as the main source of energy. As Radhi 2009 (p. 98) notes, petroleum products used in driving engines and generating electricity in the city of Dubai form the basis of greenhouse gas emission. This coupled with the use of carbon products in agricultural farms, pest control tools, and plastic materials, continue to cause ozone depletion leading to concentration of heat within the atmosphere. Increased heat levels within the atmosphere continue to cause global warming in Dubai.

Habitat Loss

Global warming effects are dependent and cyclic. The greenhouse effect leads to a concentration of heat in the atmosphere. This consequently causes the melting of ice caps. Within the city of Dubai, Radhi 2009 (p. 99) observes that the melting of ice presents a recipe for habitat loss, especially in downstream drainage basins. The absence of glaciers alters late summer stream flows and temperatures. Such as situation compromises breeding characteristics of the downstream fish species leading to loss of biodiversity. Likewise, increasing downstream flows results in extreme natural calamities, such as floods during rainy seasons in some regions.


Over the past few years, UAE countries began transforming from restricted trade regions to free trade areas. Dubai and Abu Dhabi are some of the Emirates that do not offer special taxation rates on goods and services entering and leaving the country. In addition, they lack independent control over customs duty regulations that control the movement of different countries within and outside their territories. One common thing, however, unites the entire UAE region – the criminal law of the UAE. The law negates trading in drugs and trading activities that out rightly violate Islam considering the religion’s prominence in the Middle East. Dubai and Abu Dhabi are not the only free trade regions in the UAE since Ras al Khaimah, Sharjah, Um Al Quwain, Ajman, and Fujairah hold a similar status. The first two Emirates enjoy stardom within the UAE, explaining the level of concentration they receive from different countries and business moguls globally. In free trade environments in the UAE, foreign governments can own resources with an eligibility margin of 100%, but it depends on the benefits that such businesses will bring to the people of the targeted region (Puddington et al. 2008, p. 139). The respective governments expect foreign companies to give their citizens the priority during employment while the free trade Emirates offer affordable raw materials, ready market, and an excellent business environment. Free trade regions such as Dubai expect foreign investors to build schools and hospitals among other social amenities while protecting the environment.

Economic environment

Dubai is rich in oil and gas, but the Emirate has little to offer when maters of agricultural production arise. Resource scarcity presents one of the reasons why countries enter into trade agreements through capitalist techniques. Oil and gas alone cannot sustain the fast-growing Dubai economy even if the UAE is one of the 10 greatest producers of the commodities globally. Even with the high production levels of oil and gas, within the UAE, Dubai has the lowest level of production for hydrocarbons making it dependent on Abu Dhabi. Also, Dubai has to approach hydrocarbon production in a diversified manner, and it learns such tactics from constant interaction with trade partners globally. With the influx of countries interested in businesses in Dubai, the Emirate gets publicity, media attention, and continued economic growth. For instance, it does not have to depend on oil and gas alone because of the slightly few reserves in comparison to other UAE emirates. Instead, it has to focus on other sources of income including tourism, entertainment, fashion, and business logistics among other diversified areas. While the rest of the Middle East plans for the EXPO 2020, Dubai has plans to promote the UAE economy by over $22 billion. It means that free trade promotes the Dubai’s economy over other closed up economies within the UAE even though it lacks the high amounts of gas and oil like its fellow emirates.

Another area of economic improvement since the introduction of free trade in Dubai includes infrastructural development. The roads, seaports, railroads, air transport, and the real estate businesses are fast-growing for purposes of increasing efficiency in entering and staying in Dubai. Immigration policies in Dubai are not very strict even though most people prefer its islands for tourism-related purposes and the real estate establishments for bookings during business trips. The development of infrastructure increases the influx of other business people across the globe, which strengthens the Dubai currency (AED) while improving the condition of the UAE’s banking system (Amekudzi et al. 2008, p. 49). The free trade policies make it easy for foreign countries to own companies in Dubai with over 50 years of non-taxation, which attracts them to the beautiful country. East Asia exports seafood, vegetables, and fruits among other frozen foods to Dubai, which means that they also export part of their business cultures to the people of Dubai. With Oman and Kuwait among regions within the UAE, Dubai carries out Islamic banking policies. However, with foreign companies, Dubai has other banking systems that promote interest earning. In capitalist economies, capital and profit generation are the two most important things, explaining why repatriations occur in case Dubai and foreign companies disagree. Through such accommodating policies, Dubai can boast of having some of the most developed business complexes including Mohammed Bin Rashid City, Dubai Healthcare City, Dubai Industrial City (DIC), and Dubai International Financial Centre (DIFC) among several others.

Technological environment

When countries share resources of value across borders, they seek to benefit from each other. As it is, Dubai cannot survive without free trade, and this explains its constant outsourcing of technology from China and the UK among other countries. In the Middle East, it is probably the second highest employer of expatriates after Kuwait. Dubai understands that it has no other option, but to come up with some of the latest technologies in construction and real estate establishment because it remains an attractive business nucleus globally. Besides, it has the opportunity to create employment for expatriates and its citizens by maximizing profit generation through technological advancements. Dubai Internet City, Dubai Studio City, Dubai media city, and Dubai Techno Park are free trade zones that display high levels of advancement in technology after the inception of capitalism in the emirates region. Technology also assists Dubai in building state of the art buildings, roads, ports, and railway networks to link customers to suppliers globally (Grigg 2010, p. 91).

After Dubai established the Jebel Ali Free Zone and Dubai Multi-Commodities Centre (DMCC), it became obvious to the rest of the world that the Emirate was serious about its trading prospects. Markedly, the centers with one-stop shopping zones enable people to operate efficiently in Dubai. Most people coordinate shipment from Dubai to their countries in the comfort of their offices or houses in other parts of the world. Technological advancements make it easy for traders to communicate with Dubai import and export offices through telephone calls, the Internet, and other online communication channels. With advancements in the Internet and mobile banking, people in Dubai no longer have to travel to distant countries to collect money. Instead, they can opt for SWIFT technologies through which they receive payments using PayPal and Skrill among other wireless platforms (Gransberg, Koch, & Molenaar 2006, p. 115). With trading networks in over 200 countries globally, everyone expects efficiency when carrying out business transactions in Dubai. Technological advancements in terms of carrying out business transactions and the development of infrastructure explain the overwhelming media attention Dubai gets over other emirates. Dubai also incorporates technology in reducing the cost of production in the pharmaceutical, real estate, decor, furniture, clothing, and vehicle manufacturing industries. Through ICT, the Emirate can promote affordable shipping services efficiently and reliably.

Political Environment

Dubai is in a transition from a conservative political regime to a democratic capitalist regime because of the foreign direct investment it engages across the globe. Evidenced by the less restrictive business regulatory measures and reduced tariffs, many countries globally feel comfortable working with Dubai among another free zone Emirates. In a free trade environment, resource movement is very important in order to reduce scarcity. However, excessive freedom enables manipulation of the same resources among other political and technological infrastructure in Dubai (Report: Dubai 2008 2008). Clearly, the regulations that exist deter foreign companies from manipulating the natural resources including oil and gas. Dubai remains cautious about such unscrupulous activities, but economic growth is equally an important part of its foreign policy. Through foreign direct investment procedures, Dubai develops global supply chains through which it learns diverse governance strategies. Dubai’s business relations with the UK compare to the Saudi-US relations indicate that the UK is one of the greatest investors in Dubai, and it influences some political decisions that the Emirate makes (Chaudhry & Zimmerman 2009, p. 101).

Since its inception, the Free Zone Authority (FZA) of the UAE keeps changing to accommodate the new market entrants that seek business partnerships with Dubai among other free trading zones. Dubai has to do business with Taiwan, the UK, South Africa, and Germany among several other countries globally. At the global level are international business policies that control commercial environments as the WTO establishes. Dubai is a member of the World Trade Organisation, and it has to make various changes to its foreign policy in order to accommodate the interests of foreign countries that seek to invest within its territories. Characteristic of the Commercial Companies Laws – no free trade zone within the UAE region – come up with trade barriers other than the ones the UAE supports (Anjaria et al. 1985, p. 82). For instance, with India and Oman, bilateral trading activities in Dubai are obviously different because the countries have different foreign policies that influence their FDIs. In the end, Dubai decided to incorporate both Islamic banking and interest-oriented banking systems to accommodate both Oman and India among other countries.

Socio-cultural environment

Culture is part of the socio-cultural environment that changes following the interaction between different communities. Dubai has close ties with the Middle Eastern countries including Kuwait; it has similar relations with China and the UK. Continued business integration between countries and communities gives rise to a popular culture as in the US and South Korea. For instance, many people identified MENA (Middle East and North Africa) countries with oil and gas only. Today, tourism and real estate are economic backbones of Dubai because it learned from East Asia that its islands have great resources. Dubai also has changing consumer patterns owing to the global consumer patterns shifting towards healthy foods. Instead of depending on the fast-food industry, people prefer frozen foods including vegetables, red meat, and poultry products. Largely, the trend manages to change the consumption habits in Dubai, which initially depended on fast foods and sugary meals (Inc. International Business Publications 2013, p. 247). Consumer consciousness towards certain types of foods over traditional cuisine makes Dubai an excellent entry point for food stores, supermarkets, and open-air markets.

Impacts of the multinational corporations on the environment

Ideally, the most renowned multinational corporations that produce some of the overly dangerous chemicals deemed unfit for the environment in the developed countries would find a formidable market in the UAE. This is because the authorities in the region may not adequately restrict the usage of such chemicals simply because it would be too costly for their citizens trying to make a living in the absence of such market processes (Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia 2012, p. 5). The ultimate victims of this environmental disparity have been countries in Africa, Latin America, Asia, and Eastern Europe. Apart from the problems caused by industrialization and modern development strategies, the UAE undergoes environmental problems resulting from high poverty, war, and crime rates. The environmental difficulties prevalent in Dubai range from air, water, to land pollution. Deforestation, soil erosion, desertification, and the poisoning of the atmosphere are among the notable features of pollution in Dubai.

Frail environmental regulatory strategies

In much of the UAE cities, frail environmental regulatory strategies habitually undermine conventional command as well as the control policies (Davidson 2008, p. 56). For this reason, such countries are endlessly experimenting with alternative approaches that aim to leverage on non-regulatory “green” measures applied by capital markets, the local communities, and the domestic consumers. However, the existing empirical research indicates that domestic disclosure programs have significantly stimulated emission reductions by filthy firms. Unrestricted pollution to land, air, and water is one of the most pressing environmental problems in Dubai. The perception in many developing countries is that large-scale and global problems are obviously important and that they should receive attention nonetheless, but that the highest priority should be given to the solution of the local environmental challenges. This point of view among the developing countries is not easy to underestimate. Schotter (2008, p. 6) holds that the need for faster economic development as a basis for better living standards, in general, is so demanding in many poor nations that environmental concerns are perhaps not forgotten but do not often get the sufficient attention that it requires.

The environmental awareness in Dubai is that an unbridled economic development can result in widespread damages to human health, and the ecosystems. The materials induced in the course of trade have environmental impact likely to impair and consequently slow down economic development in the region. This scenario, however, is well documented in countries of the former East-European socialist, which are currently struggling to shed off the extremes of this experience (Davidson 2008, p. 234). Although many developing countries are introducing abatement measures to keep local air pollution problems in check, it is unfortunate that in most cases the priorities are clear while the repercussions bare regrettable impacts. The evidential burden on voluntary regulatory policies has had mixed feelings naturally. Taken in part, the available literature suggests that policy legislation would do well especially if it were coined to exercise caution in the implementation and promotion of alternative pollution control measures.


The struggle against climate change and global warming receives great support in the United Arab Emirates, and several anti-environmentalists groups have been effective in the region. Radhi (2009, p. 100) argue that the reduction of carbon emission presents huge and strenuous budgets. However, coupled with differing political, economic, legislative, and policy inequalities in the region, fighting global warming may not be a unified force. Extreme weather patterns, droughts, cyclones, hurricanes, rising sea levels, and melting glaciers represent a change in climatic conditions, which may not augur well with the economy of Dubai. Statistics from numerous studies show the reality of global warming and its massive effects have direct impacts on the economy (Leroux 2005, p. 100). Responsible authorities need to develop adequate policies and legal frameworks to control this trend in the UAE before it reaches an irreversible state.

Environmental sustainability is a key concern for Dubai ever since many manufacturing firms began displaying an interest in the region. The country cannot depend on hydrocarbons only to generate energy. As a result, it focuses on diversification, which assists in the provision of renewable energy. The CCL (Commercial Companies Laws) remain very strict on the companies that release greenhouse gases into the atmosphere without limiting the ozone layer destruction process in any way. Dubai environmental regulation policies establish that foreign companies operating within it should follow the Kyoto Protocol. Mobile service providers, especially the ones in the electronics manufacturing companies, have to engage in recycling programs for purposes of ensuring environmental sustainability (Hassanien 2009, p. 68). Besides environmental sustainability in the industrialized business environment, education in Dubai keeps changing in the interest of trading partners. For example, currently, the Dubai graduates get accreditation from the UK based system even though primary schooling assumes the 12 programs as other MENA countries. Dubai has interests in economic and political expansion since the two remain very important for countries globally as China does in order to acquire veto status. Dubai cannot ignore the significance of regulated trade in managing some business enterprises to avoid manipulation from external quotas.

Regulated trade options for Dubai

Over a long period, the UAE became a parent business associate of Canada because it had a closed economic system. Besides opening up the Canadian market to the MENA countries and Southeast Asia, the UAE found an opportunity to trade with countries in Eastern Europe. It means that the UAE has its regulations for the free zone emirates conducting businesses across Europe and the rest of the world. Other regulations come from the United Arab Emirates that belong to the GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council) because trading in oil and gas within the Middle Eastern region class for caution in terms of environmental conservation. The politics of oil are not new to the region; they constantly contribute to insurgencies, which Dubai might not experience since opening up its economy to the rest of the world.

In regulated markets, economic interests and the need for communal resource ownership leads to selfishness. In capitalist economies such as Dubai, individualism ensures that private organizations work hard to limit any barriers that would make the business environment hostile to investors. Political insurgencies are such barriers that free trade economies cannot condone. However, in Syria, Egypt, and Libya among other closed up or regulated economies, insurgencies are likely to occur because the people seek to get a fair share of the communalized resources. Dubai still trades with the regulated markets from the MENA countries, and it has to adhere to the market access policies such as customs duty regulations, market-entry principles, and export duties. Some UAE countries offer joint business programs and equity ownership when they consider free trade rather incompetent in comparison to restrictive trade.

Combating pollution in Dubai

Many environmentalist organizations are promoting international collaboration in areas of large-scale pollution. IGBP (International Geosphere-Biosphere Program) is a good example of the increased international cooperation currently working in many parts of the word to promote environmentally friendly production. However, in the UAE only a few organizations are active in the area of local air pollution. The RAINS program (Regional Acidification Information and Simulation), is one of the exceptions and is engaged in the assessment of acid deposition in the UAE (Sahu, Beig, & Parkhi, 2012, p. 269). Dubai particularly has always endeavored to promote activities, which can contribute to the exchange of ideas and collaboration between scientists of the developing countries with their colleagues of the developed world.


Pollution is the contamination of the ecosystem by discharging toxic substances onto the soil, in water, or into the air. Dubai denotes a classical rapidly developing city in the world today. Most often, rapidly developing regions may exhibit extremely poor environmental conditions, which may have far-reaching ecological consequences, and for that matter a net tall on the economy (Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia 2012, p. 2). Although the UAE pursues a clean environment, pollution is not much restricted and its various cities do not amicably address a broad variety of environmental concerns. Sahu, Beig, and Parkhi (2012, p. 264) observe that crafting and enforcing stricter environmental regulations in the UAE would be economically catastrophic in the long run. Consequently, most cities live in apathy between the dilemma of securing economic stability and having an unpolluted environment. Often, rich trading blocs take advantage of the predicaments faced by the UAE in the process of securing economic stability (Sokhi 2008, p. 455). Such trading partners dump hazardous waste and garbage in the UAE and the companies in the developed countries would naturally build plants, which emit considerable pollutants in the region. Such corporations find it easy to do business in the region since they could avoid the regulations they would otherwise face in their home countries.

General consequences of pollution in Dubai

While environmentalists and the ordinary public are always concerned about the general consequences of pollution, of particular worry are the historic, pervasive, and persistent environmentally unfriendly practices. Methodologically, most of the literature on the drivers of environmental performance in developing countries consists of plant-level econometric studies. The dependent variables in the literature are measures of or proxy for the environmental performance while independent variables are characteristics of the plant and of the community in which a plant is located (e.g., household revenue, per capita income, and literacy levels). A few studies use ambient water quality in river sections near manufacturing centers as a dependent variable, and one uses data on stock market returns of publicly traded plants (Davidson 2008, p. 156). Regression results are used to develop hypotheses about the determinants of environmental performance. For example, in a plant-level study of the drivers of environmental performance showed a positive correlation between environmental performance and literacy levels in the local community (Davidson 2008, p. 256). All factors withheld, literate populations are more aware of plants’ environmental performance and therefore exact greater caution in their activities.

Toxic emissions

Toxic emissions such as carbon dioxide emanates from the combustion of fossil fuels and the manufacture of raw materials such as cement and petroleum products. Most of the toxins are produced in the course of the combustion of solid, liquid, gaseous fuels and flaring (Sahu, Beig & Parkhi 2012, p. 267). Table 1 shows the energy consumption and unit tons of toxic substances emitted in the environment in Dubai between 1991 and 2011.

Table 1: Energy Consumption in Dubai from 1991 to 2011

Fuel Type
Unit Tons (ppm)
1991 2001 2011
Coal (Power Sector) 136 230.36 465
Lignite 20 22.6 35
Coking Coal (Steel) 21 30.7 68
Coal (Cement) 7.8 15.32 37
Domestic Coal 44 42.21 85
Coal (Total) 228.8 341.2 690
Gasoline 3.54 6.7 12
Diesel 21.13 38.57 65
Kerosene 8.42 11.30 9
LPG 2.41 7.01 18
Fuel Wood 256.2 281 281
Biogas 74.4 62 62
Crop–Residue 56 36 36

Source: World Bank 2013

Exposure levels

Exposure refers to the concentration of pollution in the immediate breathing environment during a specified period. This can be measured either directly through personal monitoring or indirectly by combining information on pollutant concentrations in each microenvironment. People in developing countries have greater exposer to very high levels of pollution ranging from between 3 and 7 hours daily (Sahu, Beig, & Parkhi 2012, p. 268). During winter in cold and mountainous regions, exposure may occur over a substantial portion of a near 24-hour period. Consequently, there is the inclination to consider respiratory illness, cancer, tuberculosis, eye disease, and prenatal outcomes including low birth weight, among other ailments.


In retrospect, free trade perfectly suits the trading environment in Dubai. As an open economic system, it easily accommodates foreign interests even though it also has regulations that bar manipulation. Dubai prides itself on its famous islands that attract many tourists, but it would not change its religious system completely to enable foreign interference. Largely, it integrates foreign policies into its FDI to enable the business environment to accommodate different countries. Characteristic of capitalist countries, the need for economic growth surpasses all barriers, which is the most important thing for Dubai and other free zone trading emirates.


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EduRaven. (2021, October 26). Free Trade and Regulated Trade in the UAE. Retrieved from


EduRaven. (2021, October 26). Free Trade and Regulated Trade in the UAE.

Work Cited

"Free Trade and Regulated Trade in the UAE." EduRaven, 26 Oct. 2021,


EduRaven. (2021) 'Free Trade and Regulated Trade in the UAE'. 26 October.


EduRaven. 2021. "Free Trade and Regulated Trade in the UAE." October 26, 2021.

1. EduRaven. "Free Trade and Regulated Trade in the UAE." October 26, 2021.


EduRaven. "Free Trade and Regulated Trade in the UAE." October 26, 2021.


EduRaven. 2021. "Free Trade and Regulated Trade in the UAE." October 26, 2021.

1. EduRaven. "Free Trade and Regulated Trade in the UAE." October 26, 2021.


EduRaven. "Free Trade and Regulated Trade in the UAE." October 26, 2021.