Parts of Expectation theory of Motivation
The expectancy theory of management explains people’s willingness to put effort into a task, which translates to performance and achieve performance rewards. The theory believes in the motivation of individuals to work basing on the anticipated outcomes of the work dedicated to a task. The theory has three parts, expectancy, instrumentality, and valence that comprise to form an essential basis for employee performance explanation or improvement (Robbins & Judge, 2012). The aim of this study is to analyze the three parts of expectancy theory and apply the parts in a case scenario of motivation in a firm.
This involves the person’s belief in the attainability of the performance of a task in the workplace (Gitman & McDaniel, 2008). When one expects to complete a task, the level of motivation for the performance of the task improves. An individual’s expectation increases with the availability of resources, adequate training on the task, successful past experiences on the job, and availability of management support to ensure the success of the operation.
This involves an employee receiving a reward for the performance of a task to a required level of expectation (Robbins & Judge, 2012). Employees are motivated to carry out a task if they expect to attain a reward on completion of the task. Reward promises kept by the decision-making authority improve the level of motivation among employees, as they believe in recognition of their hard work through rewards. These promises include recognition of employees for the work done perfectly and pay increase as a motivator for increased performance. Having trust and respect for decision-makers and having confidence in the management who makes decisions on appraisal and pay increases motivation levels. A poor trust between the employees and organization leaders translates to low instrumentality because of instances of manipulation of rewards or unfair appraisal or demotion, which affects the instrumentality of the employees. A very clear understanding of the channels of rewards for exemplary performance also aids in the realization of instrumentality (Gitman & McDaniel, 2008). Well-structured policies on performance and rewards also play a significant part in ensuring high instrumentality.
This entails the person’s own value attachment on the attainment of the desired goal and achieving a certain reward. Different individuals have different tastes for rewards, which determine the dedication one has to attain a certain reward that comes with the achievement of a certain goal. It means the importance that a person believes comes with a certain reward achieved from performance to a certain, satisfactory level (Gitman & McDaniel, 2008). An employee who values promotion more than salary allowances are motivated by the use of the promotion. Salary increase cannot act as an incentive for the employee to work hard. Aspirations, preferences, needs, and values harbored by a worker in a given job setting determine the valence.
Application of Expectation theory to a chosen firm
This part deals with a firm’s application of expectancy theory of motivation to improve the motivation of its workers. The application of the expectation theory takes place in the three parts of the theory. The first way to motivate the employees is through the company improving the expectations of employees for the new production process success (Dubrin, 2008). The company can improve the expectation of its employees by availing necessary resources, further training of employees to make them competent and confident in the introduced process, and giving management support to the employees in carrying out their duties.
The second part is instrumentality where the employees have to be motivated through giving them incentive to be the best. A promise of a percentage rise in earnings congruent to the performance aids in motivating the employees in the company. Pay rises for the excellent work should be substantial to drive the employees desire to achieve the expected performance level. A reward relating to employee performance serves to improve performance and motivation levels in the workplace.
Improving trust levels between the firm’s employees and management helps the company achieve instrumentality (Dubrin, 2008). This is because it elevates the probability of fairness and reduction in employee manipulation hence improves job satisfaction for the employees. Therefore, fair rewards for employees for excellent performance hence motivation levels in the firm will tremendously improve. The firm can also institute clear policies governing reward allocation channels and make every employee aware of the policy. This will enhance employee participation and improve their dedication to the company, which will lead to increased motivation according to the instrumentality part of the expectancy theory of motivation.
The valence part of the expectancy theory is where the company accesses the value of different motivations to employees aim to meet them. The firm can introduce a high range of motivating factors including substantial salary, promotion, house and travel allowance, free time and job satisfaction rewards (Dubrin, 2008). This will ensure that the emotional orientation of the reward for an individual falls within the variety of rewards given. The employees will elect the reward that gives him/her the greatest satisfaction from the available rewards offered and work to achieve the objective of the firm (Robbins & Judge, 2012). The firm will have improved the employees’ performance by application of the expectancy theory of motivation.
Dubrin, A. (2008). Essentials of Management. New York, NY: Cengage Learning.
Gitman, L., & McDaniel, C. (2008). The Future of Business: The Essentials. New York, NY: Cengage Learning.
Robbins, S., & Judge, T. (2012). Organizational behavior (15th ed.). New Jersey, NJ: Prentice Hall.