In the twelfth chapter, Munson and Lague demonstrate the basic terms and principles of bioethics. They start by examining five significant moral hypotheses that have been advanced by famous philosophers such as Kant, Ross, and Rawls (Munson & Lague, 2017). Every one of these hypotheses addresses an endeavor to supply fundamental standards people can depend on in settling on good choices. For instance, the theories are explained first by giving a definition to happiness, which, according to the utility principle, is the primary goal of ethics (Munson & Lague, 2017). The chapter inspects how the shown theories may be applied to moral issues in the clinical setting. There is a conversation of the reasons that have been offered to convince moral scholars to acknowledge every hypothesis. In the second segment, a few good standards are represented that are of extraordinary significance to biomedical exploration and practice (Munson & Lague, 2017). These standards are always mentioned in conversations of reasonable moral issues and are adequately uncontroversial to be supported in an overall manner by any of the moral speculations referenced in the main segment. The part finishes with the ways to deal with the moral hypothesis that are not related to a particular arrangement of central standards. These incorporate care morals, the abilities approach, ideals, and different personality-based speculations.
Munson and Lague highlight four general moral speculations and one hypothesis of equity that has a fundamental moral segment. By the end, they notice a portion of the viable results and theoretical challenges that bring up issues about the hypothesis’ sufficiency or rightness (Munson & Lague, 2017). The authors explain whether there are any standards to utilize when settling on good choices in the clinical setting. Hence, they propose the general moral hypotheses and rules which construct all settings of ethical human actions.
I enjoyed reading the chapter dedicated to the basis of biological and medical morals. It presents all the historical and background information related to the origins and reasonings of bioethics. What I like is that the authors do not forget to mention some of the challenges each theory presents. It shows how each term was developed and that anything can be questioned when considering a moral choice. For each situation, they start by looking at the essential standards of the hypothesis and the grounds offered for its acknowledgment. Munson and Lague consider how these theories might be utilized in settling on good choices. Additionally, they reflect a portion of the reactions asked against them.
There is also an investigation of some potential uses of the theories that emerge inside the clinical setting. This helps to orient the readers to the actual events which a medical and biological practitioner may face during care after a patient or research study. I, personally, have not encountered such cases in my life where I had an obligation to make the difficult choice regarding the consent of the participant or the treatment method of the patient. Nonetheless, I have conducted surveys and interviews where I had to inform the participants about the purpose and principles of the studies and the voluntariness of their participation to follow the bioethical standards. Thus, this reading gives me assurance of the righteousness of my actions and teaches me to avoid any ethical mistakes in the future.
Munson, R., & Lague, I. (2017). Intervention and reflection: Basic issues in bioethics (10th ed.). Cengage Learning.