The Importance of Pericles to the Athens City
Pericles, a statesman in Athens, was born in 495 BCE in an aristocratic family and died in 495 BCE. Pericles was a literature and philosophy patron during his early age and continued to promote them as an adult (Futtner). Moreover, he had excellent oral skills, which got him to the city’s top political position. His leadership increased democracy, strengthened the empire, and flourished his town. Pericles purposed to rebuild many temples that the Persians had destroyed. As a result, Athens became Greece’s political and cultural focus between the Peloponnesian and Greco-Persian wars (Futtner). Pericles is famous for his participation in building projects such as the Parthenon, the Athens’ goddess temple, on Acropolis. This building was constructed between 447 BC and 438BC with the primary purpose of representing the glory of Athens city. Moreover, Futtner explains that the structure played a significant role in beautifying and protecting the town and created job opportunities for the people. Pericles’s focus on the democracy of Athens made the critics refer to him as a populist.
The Differences Between Black-figure and Red-figure Paintings
The style of pottery painting of black-figure was common between the fifth and seventh centuries BC. On the other hand, red-figure vase ceramic was established around 520BC by Athens to replace the black-figure painting and was used until the third century BC (Hansen). The ceramics techniques were similar in developing the vase and creating the desired shapes during firing. However, red-figure paintings contained red images against a red background. In contrast, the black-figure ceramic consisted of black pictures against the vase’s natural red color. The black-figure pot’s surface was polished and burnished before hardening it entirely, and the sketcher outlined the scenes of their preferred paintings (Hansen). A fine clay sip with a different clay’s makeup and consistency was used to color the paintings and left to dry.
Other details such as eyes were added through the incision using sharp-pointed tools, which showed the pot’s underneath colors. The red-figure ceramic was the opposite of the black-figure painting because its color was black after firing, and the background was filled with a fine slip. The painters added details using fine brushes, which allowed them to improve their artwork level.
Counterpoise or “Contrapposto “and What it Achieved
Counterpoise or “contrapposto” is an Italian word that originated in ancient Greece. This term was used to explain a standing human figure whose most weight was on one foot, relaxing the other, referred to as the engaged leg. As a result, the sculpture’s arms and shoulders rest at opposite angles, and the figure was curved slightly. Early Greece’s statues were not lifelike because they faced in front with one foot slightly before the other and hips and shoulders squared up. Counterpoise helped the ancient Greeks to give more human characteristics to their artworks.
The Ornate Architectural Columns and why it was Popular
The Corinthian capital was the most ornate architectural column among the five orders. This is because its style is more elaborate and complex than the others. Its unique decorations and characteristics made it more popular than the Doric and Ionic arts (Zucker and Harris). The Corinthian’s top part or capital consisted of carved lavish ornament which looked like flowers or leaves. The capital decorations flared out like bells, which signified a height sense, making it more slender and taller than Ionic columns. Historians told a myth of a Corinth girl to explain the establishment of the statue (Zucker and Harris). The marriageable lady became sick, died, and was buried with a basket containing what she liked. The stalks, leaves, and flowers sprang from the tomb, created a natural beauty, and captured a sculptor’s attention (Zucker and Harris). As a result, the carver began to incorporate the complex design onto the top of the classical art.
Art and Architectural Changes in the Hellenistic Period
Greece sculptors perfected and pursued naturalism, which artists had developed for an extended period by adapting Classical techniques. The Hellenistic period refers to the three periods between 323 B.C.E. when king Alexander the Great died in and 31 B.C.E., which marked Augustus’s rise (“Boundless Art History”). The cravers had an increased idealized perception and details about the human anatomy; therefore, they wanted to excel in their artwork. Alexander the Great’s conquest caused power to shift from Greece’s city-states to the dynasties. The wealthy households patronized dramatic urban plans and large complexes within the city-states (“Boundless Art History”). These buildings created civic and market spaces that varied from the surrounding orthogonal houses.
The Corinthian order is commonly associated with the Hellenistic period, with the Ionic and Doric columns undergoing significant changes. The sculptures changed from the exuberant, cheerful sensuality and idyllic marble reliefs and statues to became less art and more of a commodity. Additionally, the statues reflected wealth instead of a personal state. The reason is that Hellenistic artwork was supported by wealthy patrons who used it for show rather than its pleasure (Futtner). Even though the Hellenistic period’s statues were realistic than those crafted before, they had stoic expressions and stiff poses.
Art and Architecture of Ancient Greece. Created by Joseph, Futtner. Uploaded by Art History Lecture, 2020, Web.
Boundless. Boundless Art History. Web.
Greek Art History. Created by Artist Phil Hansen. Uploaded by Goodbye-Art Academy, 2014, Web.
The classical orders. Created by Smart history. Uploaded by Dr. Steven Zucker and Dr. Beth Harris, 2013, Web.