This research paper is intended to gather information on the subject of the practice implemented for reading and writing in primary level. However, the research paper continues to evolve to meet the needs of a world marked by continuous change or effective action. Crafted from the primary level literacy course, this broad in scope and thoroughly concerned with concrete problems or data rather than with fundamental principles text continues to cover the information needed by both new and experienced teachers in order to teach effective literacy in the primary level, thereby following this with the specific strategies to use in the classroom to develop successful teenage or primary readers and writers. Nevertheless, arousing or capable of arousing deep emotion in students toward independence in reading and writing is the most important instructional goal during the primary years. Although, providing proper equilibrium literacy teaching is a central or dominant task, but demanding objective for many primary teachers.
In addition to this, the research paper further provides the balance that both new and skilled or experienced teachers need to be successful in the classroom. Hence, making into a whole or make part of a whole the best of what we know about teaching, reading and writing, and implementing the ideas that will lead us into the future of education.
Many educational decisions on the implementation of the process to be undertaken on how to teach reading and writing in the classroom are made by teachers globally. Although, these decisions are made in an intuitive manner by a number of teachers, however, a characterized by order and planning procedure of keeping under surveillance is able to accomplish a purpose in promoting primary literacy development.
Consequently, the reading progress of the students is being observe, when the schools literacy program is being supervised by the teachers, thereby gaining full insight of their method of teaching and the quality (positive or negative) that renders the teaching resources desirable or valuable.
The teachers observance on the students makes it possible for the teacher to gain full knowledge of the process undertaken in teaching, in other words, with the monitoring of the students they will be able to estimate or determine the nature, value, quality, ability, extent, or significance on the effectiveness of their teaching. Moreover, it helps them in making necessary adjustment and improving on the standard of teaching.
In line with this, exercising caution or showing care or attention and incessant observation is an essential process in the primary literacy program, for the reason that it helps teachers to establish the most efficient, elaborate and systematic plan of action for teaching literacy and because the students learning difficulty is being quickly given attention to by the teacher before the literate difficulty seriously affects the students success.
“Cycle of literacy coaching”
Literacy learning program for a primary level are significant for their success in learning to read and write. During the primary level, the students must attain the understanding of education or instruction in the fundamentals, and about the uses of reading and writing in an elaborate and systematic process thereby, understanding the meaning of various kinds of texts, and the rudiments of how alphabetic writing structure works in order to develop into successful readers and writers (Richgels & McGee, 2003, p.1) The process of observation in the primary literacy program is characterized by order and planning and further helps in the success of the students reading and writing development and the teachers’ instructional elaborate and systematic plan of action, sequentially to improve the students’ success in literacy.
According to the survey carried out by Richards, he stated that whichever monitoring effort has three essential mechanisms which are: the compilation of the Knowledge acquired through study, experience or instruction on a regular basis, analyzing and estimating or determining the nature, value, quality, ability, extent, or significance of the Knowledge acquired through study, experience or instruction and lastly working towards the improvement of the students’ performance (Richards, 1988, p.496).
For any teacher to be able to pass on sound knowledge of education to their scholars irrespective of the race or language of instruction they must have a pattern of teaching and monitor the progress of the students.
The teachers must have a one on one or intimate teaching relationship with their scholars for them to have sound understanding on how to carry out their teaching pattern.
Once the teacher is familiar with the scholars, depending on their level of knowledge, the introduction of phonetics and vowels and how to make up words through, speaking, reading and listening will be the basic teaching pattern (Richards & Rodgers 2001, p.21). The language of instruction must be put into consideration since most of the scholars are classified as international students. They have to be instructed in a clear and loud voice and every word or assignment being taught has to be repeated before and after writing it down on the blackboard (Richards & Rodgers, 2001, p.11).
On achieving this, great emphasis will be laid on the introduction of the different parts of speech or structuring of grammar and rhetoric (e.g. phrases, clauses and sentences) which will help the students build up on how to make
sentences and where to place each word to make a good sentence (Richards & Rodgers, 2001, p.13). Though it’s a gradual process that requires patience and time, but each assignment or class reading must be given in segment for easy understanding and vocabulary building. After each class work, every assignment must be dictated to scholars for identification and familiarity with words and sentences, hence building up their writing skills and also improving their reading ability.
The students must be engaged in the process of reading out texts because they benefit from practicing oral reading and from listening to what is being read by others. Subsequently all students’, must be involved in group assignment and also being called on to explain the topic of discussion after every topic. This builds up their structure of grammar, hence enabling them to express themselves and also understanding of the topic of instruction.
Though some students are slow in learning, be it native or non native speaker and needs enough time in their way of expression. However, the teacher has to be liberal and encouraging in teaching, making the students assume they are one family and learning will be fun.
Through group learning the teacher will be able to pass more knowledgeable ideas and information that will be beneficial to the students, in a way that they will learn from others mistakes and adjust in their lapses in learning.
The teacher must give the scholars a written and oral test regularly to know their performance on each lecture. Some of the thing that must be considered when given such test is writing in a simple and correct language that they will understand and be able to answer correctly; the question has to be typed and printed in a clear and correct format for the scholars to understand each word and sentence being asked by the questionnaire.
Extra time must be given to them so that they can be able to arrange themselves while answering questions and they are to be given the opportunity of asking question when they are not sure of the word or sentence that they are being tested on. For non native speakers the use of dictionary must be allowed for checking the meaning of words which are confusing to them.
During tests and examinations, the question must be explicative and similar to what they have learned before and also avoiding many vocabularies which may sometimes confuse the students. The sitting arrangement must be in a way that they will not be able to copy from one another and strict supervision must be carried out.
In addition to this as stated earlier, the process of literacy requires monitoring of the students achievement and success.
However, having the power or quality of deciding the gaps in practice and eloquenting questions on which to concentrate the attention or energy of the monitoring may come before these components.
In essence, monitoring of activities is a process which requires continuity. When the schools’ literacy program is being kept an eye on by the teachers, the students’ improvement and success in literacy is being supervised thus, the teachers will be acquainted with the students learning ability.
On the other hand they collect facts from which conclusions may be drawn on the students’ continuous assessment; moreover, the standardized tests will also be collected.
Furthermore, they also check the students’ approach in the direction of learning and writing, the statement that expresses a personal opinion, belief or adds information being made by the students’ parents, and any other information that specifies or expresses a doubt or question if the objective of the literacy program is being achieved.
After this, the re-examining and considering in detail and subject to the information to discover essential features or meaning of the information gathered in order to settle on the importance of a variety of statement of fundamental facts or principles of the literacy program and the importance of these fundamental facts or principles in promoting the growth of the success of the students’.
In addition to this, modification is being made in the areas that need a change for the better or progress in development. Furthermore the process of monitoring will have to be embarked on again on the literacy program.
In other to achieve a quality literacy environment the process of effective monitoring will have to be implemented. Cooper stated that “all teachers need ways to determine what the students are learning and the progress they are making in the literacy education being passed on to them. This information provides the basis for making decisions, planning instructional activities and experiences, and distinguishing effective procedures,” (Cooper, 1997, p.513).
In conclusion to this, most teachers who educate young people are presently declaring to be true or admit the existence of the fact that the objective of having nearly all primary students to understand literacy or reading and writing is not being doubtful of accomplishing or dealt with. Furthermore, as stated by Snow, Burns and Griffin that they recognized that “ensuring success in reading requires different levels of effort for different segments of the population” (Griffins, Burns and Snows, 1998, p.16). However, good classroom instruction is at the first level of support for the success of primary literacy. Moreover, children who are identified as having reading difficulties need intensive individualized instruction from a highly experienced teacher.
Cooper, J. D. (1997). Literacy: Helping children construct meaning (3rd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Griffin, P., Burns, M. S., & Snow, C. E., (1998) Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children. Washington, DC: NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS.
Richards, C.E., (1988). Indicators and three types of educational monitoring systems: Implications for design. Bloomington. IN: Phi Delta Kappan.
Richards, J. C. & Rodgers,T. S., (2001). Approaches and methods in language teaching, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Richgels, D. J., & McGee, Lea M. (2003), Designing early literacy programs:
strategies for at-risk preschool and kindergarten children. New York, NY: Guilford Press.